In 2014, Ian Goodfellow presented a different kind of network architecture. It wasn’t a bigger, wider, or deeper version of other neural networks. It didn’t use fancier activation functions or more advanced optimization techniques. It was structurally different.

Let’s approach this idea one small step at a time.

The simple image classifier: cat vs. not cat

The following picture shows a neural network that learns to classify images as cats or not cats.

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