a shot of dev knowledge

The concept of **stacking** is one way you can join or concatenate two or more NumPy arrays.

The only difference between stacking and concatenation is that stacking is done along *an axis*. There are two functions used for this:

`hstack()`

`vstack()`

Let us see these two functions in detail.

`hstack()`

functionThe ** hstack() function** accepts a tuple that contains all the

`hstack()`

operation on a 1-D and 2-D NumPy array.hstack() operation on 1-D NumPy arrays

**1** of 2

Now, take a look at the code:

import numpy as np arr1 = np.array([0,0]) arr2 = np.array([1,1]) arr = np.hstack((arr1,arr2)) print(arr)

hstack() operation on NumPy arrays

**Explanation:**

- On
**line 1**, we import the required package. - On
**lines 3 and 4**, we create two NumPy array objects. - On
**line 6**, we join those two arrays along the row axis using the`hstack()`

function. - On
**line 8**, we print our joined NumPy array.

`vstack()`

function`vstack()`

also accepts a tuple that contains all the *NumPy arrays* that need to be joined

Below is the visualization of the `vstack()`

operation on a 1-D and 2-D NumPy array.

vstack() operation on 1-D NumPy arrays

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Now, take a look at the code:

import numpy as np arr1 = np.array([ [0,0], [0,0] ]) arr2 = np.array([ [1,1], [1,1] ]) arr = np.vstack((arr1,arr2)) print(arr)

vstack() operation on NumPy arrays

**Explanation:**

- On
**line 1**, we import the required package. - On
**lines 3 and 4**, we create two NumPy array objects. - On
**line 6**, we join those two arrays along the column axis using the`vstack()`

function. - On
**line 8**, we print our joined NumPy array.

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