Network delay refers to the amount of time it takes for a packet to go from point A to point B. If Point A is the source and point B is the destination, then the delay is called an end to end delay.
The types of delays encountered in a packet-switched network are:
Propagation delay is the time that it takes for a bit to reach from one end of a link to the other. The delay depends on the distance () between the sender and the receiver, and the propagation speed () of the wave signal. It is calculated as:
Transmission delay refers to the time it takes to transmit a data packet onto the outgoing link. The delay is determined by the size of the packet and the capacity of the outgoing link. If a packet consists of bits and the link has a capacity of bits per second, then the transmission delay is equal to:
Queuing delay refers to the time that a packet waits to be processed in the buffer of a switch. The delay is dependent on the arrival rate of the incoming packets, the transmission capacity of the outgoing link, and the nature of the network’s traffic.
Processing delay is the time taken by a switch to process the packet header. The delay depends on the processing speed of the switch.
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