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CI/CD for cloud native applications

Boris Zaikin


Continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) are crucial parts of developing and maintaining any cloud-native application. Proper adoption of tools and processes makes a CI/CD pipeline simple, secure, and extendable.

Cloud native (or cloud-based) means that an application utilizes cloud services. For example, a cloud native application can be a web application deployed via Docker containers and uses Azure Container Registry deployed to Azure Kubernetes Services or uses Amazon EC2, AWS Lambda, or Amazon S3 services.

In this shot, we will:

  • Define continuous integration and continuous delivery

  • Review the steps in a CI/CD pipeline

  • Explore DevOps and IaC tools used to build a CI/CD process

An overview of CI/CD

The continuous integration process is when software engineers combine all parts of the code to validate before releasing tested applications to the dev, test, or production stages.

Steps for continuous integration

CI includes the following steps:

  1. Source control: It pulls the latest source code of the application from source control.

  2. Build: It compiles, builds, and validates the code or creates bundles and linting in terms of JavaScript/Python code.

  3. Test: It runs unit tests and validates coding styles.

Steps for the continuous delivery process

Following CI is the continuous delivery process, which includes the following steps:

  1. Deploy: It places prepared code into the test (or stage) environment.

  2. Testing: It runs the integration and/or load tests. This step is optional as an application can be small and not have a huge load.

  3. Release: It deploys an application to the development, test, and production stages.

CI and CD are two parts of one process. However, in the cloud native world, we can implement CD without CI. We can see the whole CI/CD process in the diagram below:

The importance of CI/CD in cloud native application development

Building a successful cloud native CI/CD process relies on the Infrastructure as Code (IaC) toolset. Many cloud native applications have integrated CI/CD processes that include steps to build and deploy the application and provision and manage its cloud resources.

How IAC supports CI/CD

Infrastructure as code is an approach where we can describe and manage the configuration of our application’s infrastructure. Many DevOps platforms support the IaC approach and integrate it directly into the venue. For example, Azure DevOps, GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket support YAML pipelines. With the YAML pipeline, we can build CI/CD processes for our application with infrastructure deployment. Below, are the DevOps platforms that can be easily integrated with IaC tools:

  • Azure Resource Manager, Bicep, and Farmer

  • Terraform

  • Tekton

  • Pulumi

  • AWS CloudFormation

Build a successful cloud native CI/CD process

In many cases, the CI/CD process for cloud native applications includes documenting and deploying infrastructure using an IaC approach. The IaC approach allows us to:

  • Prepare the infrastructure for our application before it is deployed.

  • Add new cloud resources and configuration.

  • Manage existing configurations and solve problems like “environment drift.”

Environment drift problems appear when teams have to support multiple environments manually. Drift can lead to an inconsistent environment setting that causes application outages. A successful CI/CD process with IaC relies on what tools and platforms we use.

Let’s look into the combination of the most popular DevOps and IaC tools.

Azure DevOps

Azure DevOps is a widely used tool to organize and build our cloud native CI/CD process, especially for Azure Cloud. It supports UI and YAML-based approaches to build pipelines. This tool is preferred when building an automated CI/CD process for Azure Cloud.

Let’s look at a simple YAML pipeline that creates a virtual machine (VM) in Azure DevTest Labs:

. . . . . .
- deployment: deploy
  displayName: Deploy
    vmImage: 'ubuntu-latest'
  environment: ${{ parameters.environment }}
        - checkout: self
        - task: AzurePowerShell@4
          displayName: 'Check vm-name variable exists'
          continueOnError: true
            azureSubscription: ${{ parameters.azSubscription }}
            scriptType: "inlineScript"
            azurePowerShellVersion: LatestVersion
            inline: |
              echo $(vm-name) - $vm_name
              #if ([string]::IsNullOrWhitespace($vm_name))
                  throw "vm-name is not set"
        - task: AzureResourceManagerTemplateDeployment@3
          displayName: 'New deploy VM to DevTestLab'
            deploymentScope: 'Resource Group'
            azureResourceManagerConnection: ${{ parameters.azSubscription }}
            subscriptionId: ${{ parameters.idSubscription }}
            deploymentMode: 'Incremental'
            resourceGroupName: ${{ parameters.resourceGroup }}
            location: '$(location)'
            templateLocation: 'Linked artifact'
            csmFile: templates/vm.json
            csmParametersFile: templates/vm.parameters.json
            overrideParameters: '-labName "${{parameters.devTestLabsName}}"
                                 -vmName ${{parameters.vmName}} -password ${{parameters.password}}
                                 -userName ${{parameters.user}}
. . . . . .

To simplify the pipeline listing, the example above is shortened. As we can see, the pipeline code can also be generic. Therefore, we can reuse it in multiple projects. The pipeline’s first two steps are in-line PowerShell scripts that validate and print required variables. Then this pipeline can be integrated easily into Azure DevOps, as shown in the image below:

The last step creates the VM in Azure DevTest Labs using Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates and is represented via the JSON format. This step is quite simple: It sends (overrides) variables into the ARM scripts, which Azure uses to create a VM in the DevTest Labs.

AWS CloudFormation

AWS CloudFormation is an IaC tool from the AWS Cloud stack and is intended to provide resources like EC2, DNS, S3 buckets, and many others. CloudFormation templates are represented in JSON and YAML formats. Therefore, they can be an excellent choice for building reliable, cloud native CI/CD processes. Also, many tools like Azure DevOps, GitHub, Bitbucket, and AWS CodePipelines have integration options for CloudFormation.

Below is an example of what an AWS CloudFormation template may look like:

  "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09",
  "Parameters" : {
     "AccessControl" : {
     "Description" : " The IP address range that can be used to access the CloudFormer tool. NOTE:
We highly recommend that you specify a customized address range to lock down the tool.",
      "Type": "String",
      "MinLength": "9",
      "Mappings" : {
        "RegionMap" : {
        "us-east-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-21341f48" },
  "Resources" : {
     "CFNRole": {
     "Type": "AWS::IAM::Role",
     "Properties": {
     "AssumeRolePolicyDocument": {
            "Statement": [{
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Principal": { "Service": [ "" ] },
            "Action": [ "sts:AssumeRole" ]
      "Path": "/"

CloudFormation templates contain sections including:

  • Parameters: We can specify input parameters to run templates from the CLI or pass data from AWS CodePipeline (or any other CI/CD tool).

  • Mappings: We can match the key to a specific value (or set of values) based on a region.

  • Resources: We can declare the resources included, answering the “what will be provisioned” question, and we can adjust the resource according to our requirement using a parameter.

AWS CloudFormation templates look similar to Azure ARM templates as they do the same work but for different cloud providers.

Google Cloud Deployment Manager

Google Cloud (GC) offers Cloud Deployment Manager an all-in-one tool that includes templates that describe resources to provision and templates to build CI/CD pipelines. The templates support:

Let’s explore the deployment of the VM using Jinja templates. It looks common to YAML:

- type: compute.v1.instance
  name: {{env["project"]}}-deployment-vm
     zone: {{properties["zone"]}}
     - deviceName: boot
     type: PERSISTENT
     boot: true
     autoDelete: true
     - network:{{env["project"]}}/global/networks/
     - name: External NAT
     type: ONE_TO_ONE_NAT

The example above is similar to ARM and CloudFormation templates as it describes resources to deploy. The YAML/Jinja 2.10.x format works better than the JSON-based structure because:

  • YAML increases readily and can read much faster than JSON.

  • Teams can find and fix errors in YAML and Jinja faster than in JSON.

  • YAML pipelines (with small adaptations) can be reused on many other platforms.

We can find an extended version of this example in the GitHub gist.

Tekton and Kubernetes

Tekton, supported by the CD Foundation (part of the Linux Foundation), is positioned as an open-source CI/CD framework for cloud native applications based on Kubernetes. The Tekton framework’s components include:

  • Tekton Pipelines: These are essential and intended to build CI/CD pipelines based on Kubernetes Custom Resources.

  • Tekton Triggers: It provides logic to run pipelines based on an event-driven approach.

  • Tekton CLI: It is built on top of the Kubernetes CLI and allows us to run pipelines, check statuses, and manage other options.

  • Tekton Dashboard and Hub: They use web-based graphical interfaces to run pipelines and observe pipeline execution logs, resource details, and resources for the entire cluster (see the dashboard in Figure 3).

The idea behind Tekton Hub is that we can share our pipelines and other reusable components. Let’s look at a Tekton Pipeline example:

kind: Pipeline
  name: say-things
    - name: first-task
        - name: pause-duration
          value: "2"
        - name: say-what
          value: "Hello, this is the first task"
        name: say-something
    - name: second-task
        - name: say-what
          value: "And this is the second task"
        name: say-something

The pipeline code above is written in the native Kubernetes format/manifests and represents a set of tasks. Therefore, we can build native cross-cloud CI/CD processes. In the tasks, we can add steps to operate with Kubernetes resources, build images, print information, and many other actions. We can find the complete tutorial for Tekton pipelines here.

Terraform, Azure Bicep, and Farmer

Terraform is a leading platform for building reliable CI/CD processes based on the IaC approach. Let’s not go in-depth on Terraform as it requires a separate article (or even a book). Terraform uses a specific language that simplifies building CI/CD templates. Also, it allows us to reuse code parts, adding dynamic flavor to the CI/CD process. Therefore, we can build templates that are much better than ARM/JSON templates. Let’s see a basic example of Terraform template code:

terraform {
  required_providers {
  backend "remote" {
    organization = "YOUR_ORGANIZATION_NAME"
    workspaces {
      name = "YOUR_WORKSPACE_NAME"

The basic template above contains the resources, providers, and workspace definition. The same approach follows the Azure Bicep and Farmer tools. These Terraform analogs can drastically improve and shorten our code. Let’s look at the Bicep example below:

param location string = resourceGroup().location
param storageAccountName string = 'toylaunch${uniqueString(resourceGroup().id)}'

resource storageAccount 'Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts@2021-06-01' = {
  name: storageAccountName
  location: location
  sku: {
    name: 'Standard_LRS'
  kind: 'StorageV2'
  properties: {
    accessTier: 'Hot'

The Bicep code above deploys storage accounts in the US region. We can see that the JSON ARM example acts the same. Terraform and Azure Bicep are shorter and much easier to understand than ARM templates. The Farmer tool can also show impressive results in readability and type-safe code:

// Create a storage account with a container
let myStorageAccount = storageAccount {
    name "myTestStorage"
    add_public_container "myContainer"

// Create a web app with application insights that's connected to the storage account.
let myWebApp = webApp {
    name "myTestWebApp"
    setting "storageKey" myStorageAccount.Key

// Create an ARM template
let deployment = arm {
    location Location.NorthEurope
    add_resources [

// Deploy it to Azure!
|> Writer.quickDeploy "myResourceGroup" Deploy.NoParameters

Above, we can see how to deploy our web application to Azure in 20 easily readable and extensible code lines.


The Pulumi framework follows a different approach to building and organizing our CI/CD processes: It allows us to deploy our application and infrastructure using our favorite programming language. Pulumi supports Python, C#, TypeScript, Go, and others. Let’s look at the example below:

public MyStack()
    var app = new WebApplication("hello", new()
        DockerImage = "strm/helloworld-http"
    this.Endpoint = app.Endpoint;

This part of the code deploys the web application to the Azure cloud and uses Docker containers to spin up the web app. We can find examples of how to spin up the web application in an AKS cluster as well as from the Docker container here


Building a cloud-native CI/CD pipeline for your application can be a never-ending story if we don’t know the principles, tools, and frameworks best suited for doing so. It is easy to get lost in various tools, providers, and buzzwords, so this article aims to explain what CI/CD cloud native applications are and walk you through the widely used tools and principles of building reliable CI/CD pipelines. This guide helps us feel comfortable when designing CI/CD processes and choosing the right tools for our cloud-native application.



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