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How to perform basic operations in TensorFlow

Harsh Jain

What is TensorFlow?

TensorFlow is an end-to-end machine learning library to create and deploy production and industry-ready complex machine learning models.

The TensorFlow library was created by the Google Brain team. It can train and run complex neural networks easily and supports many architectures, which create robust machine learning and deep neural network-based models.

Some competitor libraries to TensorFlow are PyTorch, CNTK (by Microsoft), and Apache MXNet.

In this shot, we’ll explore what a tensor is and how we can perform basic arithmetic operations on these tensors using the TensorFlow library.

What is a tensor?

A tensor is a multi-dimensional array similar to the NumPy arrays. For example, some tensors are shown below in the illustration:

Different Tensors with their shapes

Let’s explore how to create a tensor and then apply the basic mathematical operations on these tensors using TensorFlow.

Mathematical operations on tensors

The approach to apply mathematical operations on tensors is given below:

  • Create a tensor using the constant() method from TensorFlow.
  • Create a session that allows to execute the operations on the tensors. The TensorFlow library internally creates the graphical representation of the tensors and executes them. The session allows to execute this graph.
  • Run session by specifying the operation.

Let’s see the code below:

import tensorflow as tf

# Create a tensors using the constant() method
x = tf.constant(9)
y = tf.constant(4)

# Launch the default tensorflow graph
session = tf.Session()
print("Operations on Scaler 1D tensors (which contains single value):")
print("Apply addition on the tensors: ",session.run(x + y))
print("Apply subtraction on the tensors: ",session.run(x - y))
print("Apply multiplication on the tensors: ", session.run(x * y))

# Create a tensors using the constant() method
x_arr = tf.constant([9, 11, 13])
y_arr = tf.constant([1, 2, 3])

print("Operations on 2D tensors:")
print("Apply addition on the tensors: ",session.run(x_arr + y_arr))
print("Apply subtraction on the tensors: ",session.run(x_arr - y_arr))
print("Apply multiplication on the tensors: ", session.run(x_arr * y_arr))
Applying mathematical operations on tensors using TensorFlow

Explanation:

  • Line 1: We import the required package.

  • Lines 4 and 5: We create the two constants using tensorflow. These constants internally represent a scalar-tensor.

  • Line 8: We create the Session object to allow the execution of operations on tensors.

  • Lines 10 to 12: We perform the four basic arithmetic operations on the scaler tensors using the run() method. We also need to pass the expression to the run() method which determines the operation that needs to be performed.

  • Lines 15 and 16: We again define two constants using tensorflow. This time, these constants are 1-D tensors.

  • Lines 19 to 21: We perform the basic arithmetic operations on these 1-D tensors using the run() method. We also pass an expression that determines the operation that needs to be performed among the 1-D tensors.

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