Trusted answers to developer questions
Trusted Answers to Developer Questions

Related Tags

project euler

Project Euler: What are repunit nonfactors?

Irzum Jafri


Repunits are defined as numbers that consist of all ones. For example: 1111111,1111, …

Repunit is denoted by R(k), where k is the number’s length (number of digits). The examples are shown below:

Repunit nonfactors problem

For this problem, let’s consider a repunit that can be represented in the form of R(10n)R(10^n).

We can see that for n = 1 , 2 and 3, R(10)R(10), R(100)R(100), and R(1000)R(1000) are not divisible by 17, but there is still a value, n=4, for which R(10000)R(10000) is divisible by 17.

However, there is no value for n for which R(10n)R(10^n) is divisible by 19. In fact, we can conclude that below one-hundred, only the following four prime numbers are factors of R(10n)R(10^n): 11, 17, 41, and 73.

We know that repunit can also be written as follows:

Let k = am, where k , a , and m are all positive integers, and then we divide R(am)R(am) by R(a)R(a). We then have:

From the definition of repunit R(k)=(10k1)/9R(k) = (10^k - 1)/9 , we can conclude that 10k=9R(k)+110^k = 9*R(k) +1 .

10a=910(a)+110^a = 9*10(a)+1 and 10am=(910(a)+1)m10^am = ( 9*10(a)+1)^m.

If we insert the discussions above in the previous formulas, we get:

If we observe the previous formula, the upper term above yields the expression that will contain + 1 in the end (exponent expansion), and this +1 will be canceled by -1 in the numerator. Now, in the numerator, we only have an expression in which each term will have 9 or its multiples. So, this shows that the whole term is divisible by 9.

We need to find the sum of all prime numbers below one-hundred thousand that will never be the factor of R(10n)R(10^n).


The solution for this problem can be found with the following code. We use prime_seive from the Euler library.

from Euler import prime_seive

limit =100000
q = pow(10,20)
s = 2+3

s = s + sum(prime_val for prime_val in prime_seive(limit)[2:] if pow(10,q,prime_val) != 1)

print ('Solution for this problem' , s)

The correct solution for this problem was found in 0.02 seconds on Intel core i7-2600K CPU @ 3.4 GHz (compiled in x86-64/Linux).


project euler

View all Courses

Keep Exploring