A** **matrix is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions arranged in rows and columns. Following are the types of a matrix.

A zero matrix, denoted as

A singleton matrix is a matrix with a single element.

A rectangular matrix has different numbers of rows and columns.

A square matrix has an equal number of rows and columns.

Two matrices are equal if they have the same dimensions and corresponding elements are equal.

A diagonal matrix has non-diagonal elements equal to zero.

A lower triangular matrix has all non-diagonal elements above the main diagonal equal to zero. In contrast, an upper triangular matrix has non-diagonal elements below the main diagonal equal to zero.

A scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix where all diagonal elements are the same scalar value.

An identity matrix, denoted as

A symmetric matrix is equal to its transpose, while a skew-symmetric matrix is one whose transpose is the negation of itself.

An invertible matrix, also called a non-singular matrix, has a unique matrix inverse that, when multiplied, yields the identity matrix.

Learn about orthogonal matrix.

Matrices play a fundamental role in mathematics and are widely applicable across various disciplines. Each matrix type holds unique properties that find practical use in different applications, from linear transformations and computer graphics to physics and engineering.

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