Protocols are the set of rules that ensure communication between computers on a network. If we want communication between two systems, then it is necessary that they have a common language. To do this, we use protocols.
Application layer protocols form the top-most layer in the
HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is an Internet-based protocol used for sending and receiving webpages. It is an application layer protocol typically established over TCP, a transport layer protocol.
It is the most commonly used protocol at this layer that follows the client-server model.
FTP stands for the File Transfer Protocol. This is the protocol that actually enables us to transfer files over a network using a client-server model. FTP promotes sharing files via remote computers with reliable and efficient data transfer. It allows users to upload, rename, move, copy, download, and delete files.
SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Email clients use this protocol for routing email messages over a network. It uses a store and forward mechanism to enable the movement of messages.
DNS stands for Domain Name System. DNS translates domain names (which are human-readable) into IP addresses that a computer can understand, as they contain a mapping of domain names to their corresponding IP addresses.
DNS works in a hierarchical manner, with each level in the hierarchy responsible for mapping a subset of domains.
Example: A domain name like
"educative.io"could be mapped to an IPv4 (IP address of 4 bytes) like this: 18.104.22.168.
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