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What are security controls?


Security controls are the safety measures that help to reduce the risk of a security breach. These risks include data theft and unauthorized access or changes to data, among others.

These controls can be implemented after the proper risk assessment to achieve the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data, systems, or networks. The security controls contain various plans and policies that help to reinforce cyber security. There are three groups of security controls.

To learn more about data integrity, you can read about the CIA triad.

The figure below shows the three groups of security controls:

Figure 1

1. Preventive security controls

These are designed to avert various cyber security incidents.

2. Detective security controls

These security controls are helpful to detect security breach events and alert the cyber security workforces regarding them. These events are security breach attempts, and a successful breach is known as an incident. These incidents can also be detected through detective security controls.

3. Corrective security controls

These controls are helpful to decrease data loss and any harm to the network or system. They also help to quickly restore critical systems and processes related to business.

Forms of security control

These security controls are present in multiple forms:

  • Access controls: These include the constraints on physical access.

    For example:

    1. Security guards
    2. Locks and fences, etc.
  • Procedural controls: These controls contain education related to security awareness and training about the security frameworks. The training incident response processes or plans are also involved in these controls.

  • Technical controls: These involve the technical aspects to secure the systems, networks, and data.

    For instance:

    1. Firewall
    2. Antivirus software
    3. Logical access controls
    4. Proper user authentication at login
  • Compliance controls: These security standards help to manage all the controls for managing your systems, data, network, etc. They play a vital role in raising awareness and guidance about computer and information security.

    These include:

    1. Privacy laws
    2. Cyber security standards and frameworks


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