Operators in PHP are signs and symbols which are used to indicate that a particular operation should be performed on an operand in an expression. Operands are the operation objects, or targets. An expression contains operands and operators arranged in a logical manner.
In PHP, there are numerous operators, which are grouped into the following categories:
Logical operators
String operators
Array operators
Arithmetic operators
Assignment operators
Comparison operators
Increment/Decrement
Conditional assignment operators
Some examples of these operators are:
+
Addition-
Subtraction*
Multiplication/
Division%
Modulus>
<
=
++
--
and so much more.Conditional assignment operators, as the name implies, assign values to operands based on the outcome of a certain condition. If the condition is true
, the value is assigned. If the condition is false
, the value is not assigned.
There are two types of conditional assignment operators: tenary operators and null coalescing operators.
?:
$y = expr1 ? expr2 : expr3;
Where expr1
, expr2
, and expr3
are either expressions or variables.
From the syntax, the value of $y
will be evaluated.
This value of $y
is evaluated to expr2
if expr1
= TRUE
.
The value of $y is expr3
if expr1
= FALSE
.
??
The ??
operator was introduced in PHP 7 and is basically used to check for a NULL condition before assignment of values.
$z = varexp1 ?? varexp2;
Where varexp1
and varexp2
are either expressions or variables.
The value of $z
is varexp1
if and only if varexp1
exists, and is not NULL.
If varexp1
does not exist or is NULL, the value of $z
is varexp2
.
Let’s use some code snippets to paint a more vivid description of these operators.
<?php /*** Ternary operator ***/ $expr1 = 7 > 10; $expr2 = "New y value if expr1 is true"; $expr3 = "New y value if expr1 is false"; //$y takes the value of $expr3 because $expr1 is false $y = $expr1 ? $expr2:$expr3; echo $y; /**** Null coalescing operator ****/ echo "\n"; //set varexp1 value to null $varexp1 = null; // set varexp2 value to string. $varexp2 = "new z value as varexp1 is null"; $z = $varexp1 ?? $varexp2; echo $z; ?>
In the code above, the new value of $y
and $z
is set based on the evaluation result of expr1
and varexp1
, respectively.
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