FORTRAN was the first programming language, developed by John W. Backus in 1957. There are six basic data types in FORTRAN:
These data types are further categorized into two types.
Integers are the discrete and exact numbers; they range from -2x10^9 to 2x10^9 on a 32-bit machine. Integers can have an optional sign in them. The basic operations that can be performed on integers are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation.
Examples of integers are 3, 0, 25, -6, etc.
# Declare integer integer :: number # Assign value to integer number = 4000 # Print number (On execution, it will print: 4000) Print *, number
real data type represents the real numbers that are used to measure quantities. Real numbers have a mandatory decimal point and an optional sign in them.
They range from -10^77 to 10^77. Just like integers, we can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation on real numbers too.
Some examples of real numbers are 0.3, 7.08, 6.02x10E23, etc.
# Declare real number real :: div # Assign value to real number div = 147.47 # Print div (On execution, it will print: 147.470001) Print *, div
complex data type stores complex numbers that have a real and imaginary part.
For example, the
complex number 4.0-7.0i is represented as
(4.0, -7.0) in FORTRAN.
# Declare complex number complex :: complexValue # Assign value to complex number complexValue = (2.0, 5.0) # Print complexValue (On execution, it will print: (2.00000000,5.00000000)) Print *, complexValue
double precision data type is similar to real numbers, but has greater precision. It has an accuracy of up to 14 digits. The same mathematical operations of integers and real numbers can be performed on the
double precision data type.
Some examples include
1D-02, etc. Here,
D represents the exponent, as
E does in real numbers.
# Declare double precision number double precision :: dub # Assign value to double precision number dub = 7777.77777 # Print dub (On execution, it will print: 7777.7778320312500) Print *, dub
character data type shows
Some examples are: ‘Welcome to Educative’, ‘1234A7’, etc. To show a single quote in
character data type, two single quotes are placed together, e.g,
‘Educative’’s courses’ will be printed as
# Declare character character(len=40) :: welcomeMessage # Assign value to character welcomeMessage = "Welcome to educative" # Print welcomeMessage (On execution, it will print: Welcome to educative) Print *, welcomeMessage
logical data type shows two possible states,
false only. Logical
NOT operations can result in this data type.
# Declare logical logical :: check # Assign value to logical check = .true. # Print check (On execution, it will print: T) Print *, check
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