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What are the steps in data encapsulation in the OSI model?


OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection model. This model is characterized by its operational rules that aid communication between different products and software.

OSI is the primary architectural model for networks. It helps describe how data is sent and received by several applications. It describes how data travels from the application on one computer to an application on another computer through a network. This aids the easy movement of information between different systems with no need to change the underlying hardware and software.

Data encapsulation exhibits how the different OSI models transmit data from one layer to the next layer, while still retaining the original information in the data set.

The following is an explanation of the steps involved in data encapsulation in the OSI model.

Step 1

The data in the upper layer undergoes processing for transmission purposes and is then handed down to the transport layer.

Step 2

At the transport layer, a virtual circuit is set up to connect with the receiving device. The data at this layer is now broken down into small segments by segmentation.

The broken data sets, which are now segments, get a TCPTransmission Control Protocol header attached to each one of them. The segments are arranged in such a way that they could be meaningful upon approaching the next layer of the model.

Step 3

Now, the data segments sent from the transport layer arrive at the network layer.

Here, the data segments from the transport layer obtain a control headeran Internet protocol header by the network layer protocol. Upon receiving the control header, the data segments become a packet or data-gram. The packets can now travel down through to the next layer of the model.

Step 4

Now at the data link layer, the received data (packets) are placed on the transmission medium of the network, whether wired or wireless.

The data link layer encapsulates the packets with a media access address (MAC) in a frame form. The address header holds the hardware address of the source and destination host.

In instances where the destination device is not a nearby device but a distant one, the data frame is passed through a router and routed through the inter-network. This enables the receiving device to get the frame regardless of its location at any time.

Step 5

Upon reaching the physical layer, the frames are encoded into digital bits of ones and zeros before being transmitted through any transfer medium.



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