Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers
Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.
In the 1990s, DES was rendered insecure due to its relatively small 56-bit key size. So, in 1997, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was proposed in response to a public call for proposals by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The table below shows how AES compares to its predecessor.
DES | AES | |
---|---|---|
Developed | 1977 | 2000 |
Cipher Type | Symmetric block cipher | Symmetric block cipher |
Block size | 64 bits | 128 bits |
Key length | 56 bits | 128/192/256 bits |
Security | Rendered insecure | Considered secure |
The AES algorithm (also known as the Rijndael algorithm) is a symmetrical block cipher algorithm that takes plain text in blocks of 128 bits and converts them to ciphertext using keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits. Since the AES algorithm is considered secure, it is in the worldwide standard.
The AES algorithm uses a substitution-permutation, or SP network, with multiple rounds to produce ciphertext. The number of rounds depends on the key size being used. A 128-bit key size dictates ten rounds, a 192-bit key size dictates 12 rounds, and a 256-bit key size has 14 rounds. Each of these rounds requires a round key, but since only one key is inputted into the algorithm, this key needs to be expanded to get keys for each round, including round 0.
Each round in the algorithm consists of four steps.
1. Substitution of the bytes
In the first step, the bytes of the block text are substituted based on rules dictated by predefined S-boxes (short for substitution boxes).
2. Shifting the rows
Next comes the permutation step. In this step, all rows except the first are shifted by one, as shown below.
3. Mixing the columns
In the third step, the Hill cipher is used to jumble up the message more by mixing the block’s columns.
4. Adding the round key
In the final step, the message is XORed with the respective round key.
When done repeatedly, these steps ensure that the final ciphertext is secure.
The AES algorithm has five modes of operation, namely:
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Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers
Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.