Trusted answers to developer questions

Affan Malik

Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers

Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.

In cryptography, the **avalanche effect** refers to the specific behavior of the mathematical function used for cryptography.

With a slight change in the input, inversion of a single bit causes a significant difference in the output. For example, inversion of half of the output bits is a desired property of the cryptographic algorithm, usually a block cipher and a

For high-quality

This effect makes it difficult for attackers to predict plain text through statistical analysis easily. Suppose the block cipher or cryptographic hash function does not show a significant avalanche effect.

In that case, the randomization is inadequate and may favor simple statistical analysis. It can lead to a prediction by the decryptor that may be enough to break the algorithm wholly or partially. Therefore, the avalanche effect is desirable from the perspective of the cryptographic algorithm or device designer.

Note:An excellent cryptographic hash function must have an avalanche effect of more than 50% on the output.

Two types of criteria are formalized from the avalanche effect are given below:

- The
**strict avalanche criteria****(SAC)**is satisfied if each output bit changes with a 50% probability each time a single input bit complements. - The
**bit independence criteria****(BIC)**states that if a single input bit inverts for all x, y, and z, the output bits y and z must change independently.

RELATED TAGS

cybersecurity

cryptography

CONTRIBUTOR

Affan Malik

Copyright ©2022 Educative, Inc. All rights reserved

Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers

Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.

Keep Exploring

Related Courses