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What is the BiFunction functional interface in Java?

abhilash

Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers

Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.

BiFunction is a functional interface, which accepts two arguments and returns a result. The interface contains two methods:

  1. The apply() method
  2. The andThen() method

The BiFunction interface is defined in the java.util.function package. To import the BiFunction interface, we use the following statement:

import java.util.function.BiFunction;

1. Apply(T t, U u)

The apply() method applies the function to the given arguments and returns the result of that function. This is the functional method of the interface.

Syntax

R apply(T t, U u)

Parameters

  • T t: This is the first argument.
  • U u: This is the second argument.

Return value

This method returns the result of the function.

Code

In the code written below, we create a BiFunction interface that accepts two string arguments and returns the result of the concatenation of the two strings:

import java.util.function.BiFunction;
public class Main{
public static void main(String[] args) {
// This implementation concats the argument strings passed as parameters
BiFunction<String, String, String> concatStrings = (s, s2) -> s.concat(s2);
String s1 = "hello";
String s2 = "-educative";
// calling apply method of the BiFunction
System.out.println(concatStrings.apply(s1, s2));
}
}
An example of using the "apply()" method

2. AndThen(Function<? super R, ? extends V> after)

The andThen() method is used to chain together multiple Function functional interface implementations, such that the result of the first implementation becomes the input to the second implementation. This method returns a composed function of different functions defined in the order. If the evaluation of either function throws an exception, it is relayed to the caller of the composed function.

Syntax

default <V> BiFunction<T, U, V> andThen(Function<? super R, ? extends V> after)

Parameters

  • Function<? super R, ? extends V> after: This is the function that needs to be applied after the current function is applied.

Return value

This method returns a composed function.

Code

import java.util.function.BiFunction;
import java.util.function.Function;
public class Main{
public static void main(String[] args) {
BiFunction<String, String, String> concatStrings = (s1, s2) -> s1.concat(s2);
Function<String, String> concatConstants = (s1) -> s1.concat("/edpresso");
Function<String, String> convertToUpperCase = String::toUpperCase;
String s1 = "Hello";
String s2 = " educative";
BiFunction<String, String, String> stage1 = concatStrings.andThen(concatConstants);
BiFunction<String, String, String> stage2 = stage1.andThen(convertToUpperCase);
// calling andThen method of the BiFunction
System.out.println(stage2.apply(s1, s2));
}
}
An example of using the "andThen()" method

Explanation

In the code written above, we define a BiFunction (concatStrings) and two different Function (concatConstants and convertToUpperCase) implementations.

The composition of the functions is divided into two stages:

  • In line 12, we compose the concatStrings and concatConstants. The result of this is stored in stage1.
  • In line 13, we compose the stage1 and convertToUpperCase. The result of this is stored in stage2.
  • In line 16, we call the apply method on the stage2 composed object.

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java
communitycreator

Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers

Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.

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