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What is the ConcurrentHashMap.compute() method in Java?

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ConcurrentHashMap is a thread-safe version of a HashMap that allows concurrent read and thread-safe update operations.

The compute() method uses the mapping function provided as an argument to compute a new value for the specified key.

If the specified key is not present, then no operation is performed and the method returns null.

null is not allowed as a key or value.

The ConcurrentHashMap object, which uses HashMap internally, is divided into multiple portions according to the concurrency level. During an update operation, only a specific portion of the map is locked instead of the whole map.

Since it doesn’t lock the whole map, there may be a chance of a read operation (like get()) overlapping with an update operation (like put() and remove()). In such a case, the result of the read operation will reflect the most recently completed update operation.

Read more about ConcurrentHashMap here.

Syntax

public V compute(K key, BiFunction remappingFunction)

Parameters

  • key: The key for which the new value is to be computed.

  • remappingFunction:

    • A BiFunction that takes two arguments as input and returns a single value.
    • The value returned from the BiFunction will be updated as the value of the passed key of the map.
    • If we return null from BiFunction, then the mapping for the key will be removed.
    • If the function itself throws an exception, then the exception is rethrown, and the current mapping is left unchanged.

Return value

The compute() method returns the new value associated with the key.

Code

The code below demonstrates how to use the compute() method.

import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
class Compute {
public static void main( String args[] ) {
ConcurrentHashMap<String, Integer> map = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
map.put("Maths", 50);
map.put("Science", 60);
map.put("Programming", 70);
System.out.println( "The map is - " + map);
System.out.println( "\nCalling compute function for key Maths");
Integer newVal = map.compute("Maths", (key, oldVal) -> { return oldVal + 10; });
System.out.println("\nThe return value is " + newVal);
System.out.println( "The map is - " + map);
System.out.println( "\n---------------\n");
System.out.println( "Calling compute function for key Economics\n");
newVal =
map.compute("Economics",
(key, oldVal) -> {
System.out.print("Inside BiFunction: The key is ");
System.out.print(key);
System.out.print(". The value is ");
System.out.println(oldVal + ".");
if(oldVal != null) {
return oldVal + 10;
}
return null;
});
System.out.println("\nThe return value is " + newVal);
System.out.println( "The map is - " + map);
}
}

Explanation

  • In line 5, we create a ConcurrentHashMap named map.

  • In lines 6-8, we add entries to the map.

  • In line 13, we call the compute() method on the map for the Maths key.

The code will compute a new value inside the BiFunction and update the value associated with the Maths key.

  • Line 20 calls the compute() method on the map for the Economics key.

    • There is no mapping associated with the Economics key, so the map remains unchanged and returns null.

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java
communitycreator

Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers

Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.

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