Quantum computing is a new paradigm in computing that uses quantum mechanics principles to perform computations at a speed unrecognizable by classical computer systems. Unlike classical bits, quantum computing uses

In this Answer, we’ll discuss the impact of quantum computing on cybersecurity and how we can improve cybersecurity for the future in quantum computing.

To understand how quantum computing is a cybersecurity threat, let’s try to understand the common features such as superposition and entanglement in quantum computing.

**Superposition:**It allows qubits to exist as a combination of states$0$ and$1$ . It helps perform multiple computations simultaneously.**Entanglement:**It allows the state of one qubit to be influenced by the state of another qubit. It helps in faster communication and data processing.

Quantum computing can also crack encryption algorithms due to its processing power. Algorithms like Shor and Grover help break the algorithms that safeguard sensitive data.

**Shor algorithm:**This algorithm factors a number into its prime components, which is a work hassle for classical computers. It threatens the security of the widely used algorithm RSA.**Grover algorithm:**This algorithm can search for data in unsorted databases quadratically faster than classical computers. The method threatens the AES symmetric algorithm and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC).

With the rise in the use of quantum computing techniques, the classical security encryption techniques are no longer secure. This means there is a need for quantum-resistant cryptography techniques. The principles to be followed in quantum-resistant cryptography are as follows:

**Quantum vulnerabilities:**Quantum computing significantly threatens the classical in-use encryption algorithms. Their ability to efficiently solve complex mathematical problems challenges the credibility of encryption algorithms.**Quantum resistance:**The post-quantum cryptography is designed to be resistant against quantum attacks. It uses complex mathematical algorithms that are difficult to solve by both classical and quantum computers to solve efficiently.

The quantum-resistant algorithms to be used are:

**Lattice-based cryptography:**The use of complex mathematical structures that involve makes it difficult for even quantum computers to solve efficiently. It offers high-security levels based on thelattices Discrete, periodic set of points in n-dimensional space. ) andShortest Vector Problem (SVP SVP is the problem to find shortest non-zero vector in a lattice. , which makes breaking by Shor’s algorithm difficult.Learning With Errors (LWE) LWE is a problem to identify the hidden secret vector from noisy linear equations. The noisy equations are formed by taking dot product of secret vector with other vectors. **Hash-based cryptography:**The use of hash functions to create secure digital signatures and encryption to ensure collision resistance. The construction is quantum resistant based on its unique structure. Reversing a hash function is difficult even by the quantum computing mechanisms.Merkle-Demgard Technique to convert fixed-size compression function into variable-length hash function. **Code-based cryptography:**Error-correcting codes make breaking down by quantum computing challenging. The security of code-based cryptography relies on the difficulty assigned to decoding linear codes like the McEliece cryptosystem. The difficulty of solving these problems makes them suitable for quantum-resistant applications.

The post-quantum techniques offer a vital defense against the challenges created by quantum computing. By adopting these algorithms to ensure the confidentiality of data, organizations can safeguard their data and communications from quantum attacks.

Quantum cryptography, also known as Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), is a technology that uses the principles of quantum physics to safely exchange symmetric encryption keys between two parties. It operates by transmitting

**Security:**It uses quantum properties like entanglement and the to generate such encryption keys that they are built tamper-proof.no-cloning theorem The theorem suggests that it is impossible to create exact copy of an arbitrary unknown quantum state. **Implications for cybersecurity:**QKD provides a mechanism to generate unbreakable encryption keys, making it very efficient in fighting against cyber threats.**Future of secure communication**: In the security challenges caused by the quantum computing revolution, the introduction of QKD serves as a hope in providing quantum-safe solutions.

With the rise in quantum computing research and work on building large-scale quantum computers, it is time to bring about urgent solutions to tackle security threats. Government, organizations, and academia are significantly investing in quantum research to generate quantum computers and safe-guarding techniques against quantum threats. While quantum computing introduces threats and challenges in cybersecurity, it can also generate solutions to protect against quantum threats. Introducing quantum-resilient algorithms and QKD contributes to building security against cyber threats.

To understand your comprehension of the subject under discussion, solve the below-given activity to further polish your understanding.

Impact of quantum computing on cybersecurity

1

**(Select all that apply)** Grover algorithm targets the credibility of which classical encryption algorithm?

A)

Rivest-Shamir-Adleman RSA

B)

Advanced Encryption Standard AES

C)

Merkel-Demgard construction

D)

Elliptic curve Cryptography ECC

Question 1 of 30 attempted

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