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Salman Yousaf

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The ** mode()** method in R extracts the most frequently occurring value(s) in a vector

`x`

or data frame.The syntax of the `mode()`

function to calculate the most frequent value(s) in the vector `x`

is as follows:

```
mode(x, na.rm = FALSE)
```

`x`

: A numerical or character type non-empty vector.`na.rm`

: A boolean field.`na.rm`

can be set to`TRUE`

to remove`NA`

(Not Available) values before mean calculation; the default value is`False`

.

- Number
- Character
- Vector
- NA

The return value of `mode()`

depends on the type of `x`

, i.e., it can return a number or character. If multiple numbers occur most frequently, then `mode()`

will return a vector.

We define `Mode`

in line 5. The function takes vector `x`

with the default value of `na.rm = FALSE`

. In line 16, it computes the mode of vector `x = (1,2,3,4,5,6,2,5,6,2)`

and returns 2.

# Create a vector.x <- c(1,2,3,4,5,6,2,5,6,2)# Own Mode method to calculate modeMode <- function(x, na.rm = FALSE) {# it takes two areguments x, and na.rmif(na.rm){ #if na.rm is false it means no need to remove NA valuesx = x[!is.na(x)]}valx <- unique(x)return(valx[which.max(tabulate(match(x, valx)))])}# Evaluate mode of numbersmode_value <- Mode(x)typeof(mode_value)# Printing resultscat("Mode is:", mode_value)

In the example below, `x = (6,14,6,14.2,18,NA,2,63,-21,9,-5,-4)`

. Now, the vector has an `NA`

value as well. The `Mode()`

method takes `na.rm = TRUE`

as an argument and ignores the `NA`

value to compute the mode in line 16.

# Create a vector.x <- c(6,14,6,14.2,18,NA,2,63,-21,9,-5,-4)# Own Mode method to calculate modeMode <- function(x, na.rm = FALSE) {# it takes two areguments x, and na.rmif(na.rm){ #if na.rm is false it means no need to remove NA valuesx = x[!is.na(x)]}valx <- unique(x)return(valx[which.max(tabulate(match(x, valx)))])}# Find mode dropping NA values.mode_value <- Mode(x,na.rm = TRUE)cat("\nAfter removing, Mode is: ", mode_value)

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Salman Yousaf

Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers

Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.

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