Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers
Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.
The secrets
module is a comparatively new module introduced in Python 3.6. It generates cryptographically strong random numbers, which can generate security tokens, make passwords, ensure account authentication, etc.
The secrets.choice()
function takes in a non-empty sequence as an argument and returns a secure, randomly-chosen element. Here the sequence can be list, tuple, or string.
random
module?Before we move on, let’s first understand why we don’t use the random
module instead. The random
module is not random since the generated numbers can be reproduced if the seed value is known.
Therefore, the random
module is not secure for cryptographic applications because the next output is predictable from earlier outputs once the seed
value is known.
Therefore, to increase security in an application in terms of randomness, we use the secrets
module.
secrets.choice(sequence)
sequence
: the non-empty sequence from which to choose a random number.A number from the sequence is chosen randomly and returned.
Let’s look at an example. Suppose that we pass the sequence [1, 3, 5, 7]
to secrets.choice()
.
The function will return any number out of the given list as an output.
Let’s now take a real-world example. The secrets.choice()
function can be used to generate OTP.
# Importing necessary modulesimport secretsimport string# Initializing VariablesOTP = ''digit = string.digits# Creating 6 digit OTPfor i in range(6):OTP +=str(''.join(secrets.choice(digit)))print(OTP)
In lines 2 and 3, we import the necessary modules.
In line 6, we initialize the OTP
variable as an empty string.
In line 7, we assign the variable digit
with string.digits
i.e. 0123456789.
From lines 10 to 13, we create the OTP
value by using the random digits from the secret.choice()
function and then print the same.
Note that the output varies every time we run the code.
This is how we use the secrets.choice()
function and create a proper random sequence, thereby enhancing the security.
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Grokking Modern System Design Interview for Engineers & Managers
Ace your System Design Interview and take your career to the next level. Learn to handle the design of applications like Netflix, Quora, Facebook, Uber, and many more in a 45-min interview. Learn the RESHADED framework for architecting web-scale applications by determining requirements, constraints, and assumptions before diving into a step-by-step design process.