A Binary Search Tree is a binary tree where each node contains a key and an optional associated value. It allows particularly fast lookup, addition, and removal of items.
The nodes are arranged in a binary search tree according to the following properties:
The left subtree of a particular node will always contain nodes with keys less than that node’s key.
The right subtree of a particular node will always contain nodes with keys greater than that node’s key.
The left and the right subtree of a particular node will also, in turn, be binary search trees.
In average cases, the above mentioned properties enable the insert, search and deletion operations in time where n is the number of nodes in the tree. However, the time complexity for these operations is in the worst case when the tree becomes unbalanced.
The space complexity of a binary search tree is in both the average and the worst cases.
The Binary Search Tree can be traversed in the following ways:
The pre-order traversal will visit nodes in Parent-LeftChild-RightChild order.
The in-order traversal will visit nodes in LeftChild-Parent-RightChild order. In this way, the tree is traversed in an ascending order of keys.
The post-order traversal will visit nodes in LeftChild-RightChild-Parent order.
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