For decades researchers have been trying to deconstruct the inner workings of our incredible and fascinating brains, hoping to learn to infuse a brain-like intelligence into machines. For example, when we were toddlers, we did not learn to recognize objects by learning their distinctive features. A child learns to call a cat “a cat” and a dog “a dog” by being exposed to the same example many times and by being corrected for the wrong guesses. This extremely active, “inspired from the brain” field of artificial computer intelligence is called deep learning. The corresponding programming paradigm, which allows computers to learn from data, is called artificial neural networks (ANN).