Part 1: Pseudo-Classes


Pseudo-class selectors are predefined keywords that define the state of an element or target a child element. They occur pretty frequently, and we can see them in action when a colon follows an element. An example of this is the :hover selector:

a:hover {   
   /* Hover is a pseudo-class! */ 

Note: The :hover selector selects elements when you mouse over them.

Common pseudo-class selectors

Listed below are some of the most common pseudo-classes grouped into the following categories: state, validation, structural, and relational.

Let’s take a look at them!

State pseudo class selectors

A state pseudo-class selector is used when the user is expected to complete particular actions, such as clicking or hovering over a link.

The :link selector represents a link that hasn’t been visited yet. It matches all unvisited a links, as long as they have an href attribute.

a:link {
  color: blue;

Styles defined by the :link pseudo-class selector are overridden by any subsequent state pseudo-class selector (:active, :hover, or :visited). So, it’s always best to put the :link rule before the rest.

The :visited selector selects all links that have been visited in the current browser session.

a:visited {
    color: red;

The :hover selector is used whenever the user’s cursor hovers over a link without clicking it. We can apply styles to this state with the :hover pseudo-class. In the example below, a elements change to orange when hovered over:

a:hover {
    color: orange;
    cursor: pointer;

The :active selector selects a link when it’s being activated. This could be when it’s clicked, tapped (on a touchscreen), or even when tabbed to (as in a navigation item) on a keyboard.

a:active {
    color: pink;


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