Constructors, destructors, getters, and setters are fundamental object-oriented programming (OOP) components. Constructors enable proper initialization of objects, while destructors handle cleanup operations. Getters and setters facilitate controlled access to class member variables. This lesson provides a comprehensive overview of these elements, emphasizing their significance in creating robust and maintainable code. We’ll explore different types of constructors, including default, parameterized, and those with default parameters or initialization lists. Additionally, we’ll discuss the role of destructors in resource management. Furthermore, we’ll explore the importance of getters and setters for encapsulation and data manipulation.

Constructors and destructors

First, let’s review why we need constructors and what their benefits are.


A constructor is a member function with the same name as the class. It is automatically called when an object of a class is made. The main concept behind the constructor is to initialize the object data members and establish their initial state. Constructors provide flexibility to create objects differently, accepting different sets of parameters depending on the constructor type. There are many types of constructors, including:

  • Default constructors

  • Parameterized constructors

  • Default constructors with default parameters

  • Member initialization lists

Before we go into detail for each type, let’s first see why they’re so important. The code below is the Timer class implementation without any constructors. Let’s run the code.

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