Quantum States

Until now, we have talked about quantum states informally. Sno, now let's talk about the quantum state formally and how we can represent it mathematically.

Single qubit states

Classical bits, represented by low and high voltages in a transistor, are represented using two numbers, 0 and 1. Quantum states are different. Instead of numbers, quantum states are represented by vectors. As you would recall, vectors have both magnitude and direction in space associated with them. More specifically, a quantum state is a vector in two-dimensional vector space. We will refer to this two-dimensional vector space as the state-space of a single qubit.

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