# The pure Functions

Learn about pure functions in Solidity.

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## Understanding the pure functions

The pure functions are important in Solidity because they ensure that no state is read or updated within the function. They’re intended for deterministic calculations and are a necessary component of secure and predictable smart contracts. We’ll explore these functions, including their purpose, properties, and how to utilize them successfully in contracts.

### Purpose of the pure functions

Within smart contracts, the pure functions serve a specific purpose:

• Immutability: They ensure that no state variables are read or updated within the function. This immutability is critical for a smart contract’s integrity and predictability.

• Determinism: Regardless of the environment or context in which they’re called, these functions always generate the same outcome for the same input. This deterministic behavior is required to ensure that contract behavior is consistent across Ethereum network nodes.

## Use cases for the pure functions

These functions are mostly used for mathematical calculations and utility functions that don’t need to access the contract’s state. Typical use cases include the following:

• Mathematical operations: Arithmetic, exponentiation, and complex mathematical formulas are examples of mathematical operations.

• Hashing: Data hashing is the process of generating cryptographic hashes of data for verification and validation.

• Data formatting: Converting data into specified formats, such as encoding or decoding data structures, is known as data formatting.

• Validation: Validation is the process of ensuring that data or parameters are valid without affecting state variables.

## Characteristics of the pure functions

To be recognized as a pure function, a function must follow certain principles and constraints, including:

• No state interaction: In the contract, a pure function must not read or modify any state variables. A compilation warning will be sent if we attempt to read state variables.

• No Ether operations: These functions aren’t able to send or receive Ether. They should only be used for calculations and should not include any Ether transfers or balances.

• No special variables: These functions can’t access any of the special variables associated with Ethereum transactions, such as block, tx, or msg. This includes gaining access to msg.sender, msg.value, and other transaction-specific data.

• No external function calls: These functions should not call any nonpure functions. This assures that the behavior of the function is completely self-contained and doesn’t rely on external interactions.

• No inline assembly with certain opcodes: While inline assembly can be used in the pure functions, it must be used with caution to prevent opcodes that read or modify state because this would violate the function’s purity.

## Error handling in the pure functions

If an error occurs while a pure function is being executed, it can use the revert() and require() techniques to undo potential state changes. This ensures that if the function gets unexpected inputs, the contract will not become inconsistent.

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