A Final Word
In this lesson, we will first summarize all the concepts we learned, then describe a whole lot of interesting stuff that we did not get to and lastly, mention a few reference papers and further reading that inspired this course.
We'll cover the following
All right, let’s finish this course off!
Goal of the Course
If you come away with nothing else from this course, the key message is: probabilistic programming is essential, it is too hard today, and we can do a lot better than we are doing. We need to build better tools that leverage the type system and support lineofbusiness programmers who need to do probabilistic work, the same way that we built better tools for programmers who needed to use sequences, or databases, or asynchrony.
Course Summary

We started this course with us complaining about
System.Random
, hence the name of the course. Even though some of the implementation details have finally improved after only some decades of misleading developers, we are still dealing with random numbers like it was 1972. 
The abstraction that we’re missing is to make “value drawn from a random distribution” a part of the type system, the same way that “function that returns a value”, or “sequence of values”, or “value that might be null” is part of the type system.

The type we want is something like a sequence enumeration, but instead of a “move next” operation, we’ve got a “sample” operation.

If we stick to simple distributions where the support is finite and small and the “weights” are integers, and restrict ourselves to pure functions, we can create new distributions from old ones using the same operations that we use to create new sequences from old ones: the LINQ operators
Select
,SelectMany
andWhere
. 
Moreover, we can compute distributions exactly at runtime, without doing rejection sampling or other clever techniques.

And we can even use query comprehension syntax, which is a pleasant and interesting way to write a probabilistic workflow.

From this we can see that probability distributions are monads; $P(A)$ is just
IDistribution<A>
. 
We also see that conditional probabilities $P(B$ $given$ $A)$ are just
Func<A, IDistribution<B>>
— they are likelihood functions. 
The
SelectMany
operation on the probability monad lets us combine a likelihood function with a prior probability. 
The
Where
operation lets us compute a posterior given a prior, a likelihood and an observation. 
This is a beneficial result; even domain experts like doctors often do not have good intuitions about how an observation should change our opinions about the probability of an event has occurred. A positive result on a test of a rare disease may be only weak evidence if the test failure rate is close to the disease rate.

Can we put these features in the language as well as the type system? Abusing LINQ is clever but maybe not the best from a usability perspective.

We could embed
sample
andcondition
operators in the C# language, just as we embeddedawait
. We can then write an imperative workflow, and have the compiler generate a method that returns the correct probability distribution, just asawait
allows us to write an asynchronous workflow and the compiler generates a method that returns a task! 
Unfortunately, realworld probability problems are seldom discrete, small, and completely analyzable; they’re more often continuous and approximated.

Implementing
sample
efficiently on arbitrary distributions turns out to be a hard problem. 
We can use our tools to generate Markov chains.

We can use Markov chains to implement
sample
using the Metropolis Algorithm. 
If we have a continuous prior (like a mint that produces coins of a certain quality with a certain probability) and a discrete likelihood (like the probability of a coin flip coming up heads), we can use this technique to compute a continuous posterior given an observation of one or more flips.

This is a very useful technique in many realworld applications.

Computing, the expected value of a distribution given a function, is a tricky problem in of itself, but there are a variety of techniques we can use.

And if we can do that, we can solve some highdimensional integral calculus problems!
Connection between await
and sample
By far the biggest thing that we did not get to, and that we may return to in another course is: the connection between await
as an operator and sample
as an operator is deeper than you might think.
As we noted above, you can put sample
and condition
operations in a language and have the compiler build a method that when run, generates a simple, discrete distribution. But it turns out we can do a pretty good job of dealing with sample operators on nondiscrete distributions as well, by having the compiler be smart about using some of the techniques that we discussed in this course for continuous distributions.
What you really need is the ability to pick a sample, run a little bit of a routine, remember the result, back up a bit and try a different sample, and so on; from this we can build a distribution of program traces, and from that we can build an approximation of the distribution of the output of a probabilistic method!
This kind of control flow is tricky; it’s sort of a generalization of coroutines where you’re allowed to rerun code that you’ve run before, but with different values for the variables to see what happens.
It is crucially important that the methods be pure! It’s also crucially important that you spend most of your time exploring highlikelihood control flows because the number of unlikely control flows is nighinfinite. If this sounds a bit like training up an ML model and then using that model in production later, that’s because it is the same thing, but applied to programs.
References
Finally, here’s an incomplete list of papers and web sites that inspired writing this course.

The idea that we can treat probability distributions like LINQ queries was given by Erik Meijer; his fun and accessible paper Making Money Using Math hits many of the same points we did in this course, but we did it with a lot more code.

The design of coroutines in Kotlin was a great inspiration to us; they’ve done a great job of making features that you would normally think of as being part of the language proper, like
yield
andawait
, into library methods. 
An introduction to probabilistic programming is a booklength work that uses a Lisplike language with samples and observes primitives.

Church is another Lisplike language often used in academic studies of PPLs.

The webppl.org web site has a Javascriptbased implementation of a probabilistic programming language and a lot of great supporting information at dippl.org.

HackPPL implements many of these ideas; Hack is a staticallytyped variant of PHP.
The next few papers are more technical.
 Build Your Own Probability Monads is a good overview for the Haskell programmers out there, as is Practical Probabilistic Programming With Monads and Stochastic Lambda Calculus and Monads of Probability Distributions.
 Lightweight Implementations of Probabilistic Programming Languages Via Transformational Compilation is a good overview of how you can use MCMC techniques on program traces. A provably correct sampler for probabilistic programs goes into some of the correctness problems faced by PPL implementations, and Generating Efficient MCMC Kernels goes into some of the performance problems.
 Another fascinating area that we wanted to explore in this course is: we know it is bad enough to try to debug programs that have yields and awaits in them; how on earth do you debug programs that are actually running the same code paths maybe thousands of times when exploring the sample space of a workflow? Here’s an interesting paper on debugging probabilistic workflows.
And these are some good ones for the math:
 These MIT course notes on Bayesian updating of continuous priors was a good primer for our lessons on “coinflipping”. And the lecture notes MC Methods and Importance Sampling are what it says on the tin.
 Understanding the MetropolisHastings Algorithm gives a bunch of the underlying math.
 The enormous book Information Theory, Inference and Learning Algorithms was invaluable in getting up to speed on math.
Get handson with 1200+ tech skills courses.