# Solve Problems in Bayesian Inference

In this lesson, we will review concepts learned so far and learn how to solve problems using Bayesian Inference.

## We'll cover the following

## Review of the Concepts Learned So Far

Since we have covered many new concepts this would be a good time to quickly review where we’re at:

- We’re representing a particular discrete probability distribution $P(A)$ over a small number of members of a particular type $A$ by
`IDiscreteDistribution<A>`

. - We can condition a distribution — by discarding certain possibilities from it — with
`Where`

. - We can project a distribution from one type to another with
`Select`

. - A conditional probability $P(B|A)$ — the probability of $B$ given that some $A$ is true — is represented as likelihood function of type
`Func<A, IDiscreteDistribution<B>>`

. - We can “bind” a likelihood function onto a prior distribution with
`SelectMany`

to produce a joint distribution.

These are all good results and we hope you agree that we have already produced a much richer and more powerful abstraction over randomness than `System.Random`

provides.

## Bayes’ Theorem

In this lesson, everything is really going to come together to reveal that we can use these tools to solve interesting problems in *probabilistic inference*.

To show how we’ll need to start by reviewing *Bayes’ Theorem*.

If we have a prior $P(A)$, and a likelihood $P(B|A)$, we know that we can “bind” them together to form the joint distribution. That is, the probability of $A$ and $B$ both happening is the probability of $A$ multiplied by the probability that $B$ happens given that $A$ has happened:

$P(A\&B) = P(A) \times P(B|A)$

Obviously, that goes the other way. If we have $P(B)$ as our prior, and $P(A|B)$ as our likelihood, then:

$P(B\&A) = P(B) \times P(A|B)$

But $(A\&B)$ is the same as $(B\&A)$, and things equal to the same are equal to each other. Therefore:

$P(A) \times P(B|A) = P(B) \times P(A|B)$

Let’s suppose that $P(A)$ is our prior and $P(B|A)$ is our likelihood. In the equation above the term $P(A|B)$ is called the *posterior* and can be computed like this:

$P(A|B) = P(A) \times P(B|A) \div P(B)$

Let’s move away from abstract mathematics and illustrate an example by using the code we’ve written so far.

We can step back a few lessons and re-examine our prior and likelihood example for *Frob Syndrome*. Recall that this was a made-up study of a made-up condition which we believe may be linked to height. We’ll use the weights from the original episode.

That is to say: we have $P(Height)$, we have likelihood function $P(Severity|Height)$, and we wish to first compute the joint probability distribution $P(Height$&$Severity)$:

```
var heights = new List<Height() { Tall, Medium, Short }
var prior = heights.ToWeighted(5, 2, 1);
[...]
IDiscreteDistribution<Severity> likelihood(Height h)
{
switch(h)
{
case Tall: return severity.ToWeighted(10, 11, 0);
case Medium: return severity.ToWeighted(0, 12, 5);
default: return severity.ToWeighted(0, 0, 1);
}
}
[...]
var joint = prior.Joint(likelihood);
Console.WriteLine(joint.ShowWeights());
```

This produces:

```
(Tall, Severe):850
(Tall, Moderate):935
(Medium, Moderate):504
(Medium, Mild):210
(Short, Mild):357
```

Now the question is: what is the posterior, $P(Height|Severity)$?

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