# Introduction to Operators

Let's get acquainted with Perl operators in this lesson.

## We'll cover the following

## What are operators?

An operator is something that takes one or more values (or **expressions**) and yields another value, so that the construction itself becomes an expression. For instance, when you add two numbers, `2`

and `5`

, it yields `7`

. The expression looks like `2+5=7`

.

## Types of operators

There are multiple types of operators for various purposes, such as:

- Arithmetic operators
- Relational operators
- Logical operators
- Assignment operators

The following figure illustrates the various kinds of operators in Perl:

## Arithmetic operators

Arithmetic operators, as the name suggests, are used for performing basic arithmetic operations. They are further divided into types:

- Binary Operators
- Unary Operators

## Binary operators

Binary operators are the ones that take two values and perform an arithmetic operation on them.

Here, the `operand`

can be the name of a variable, or it can be a constant like `2`

, `3`

, or any other constant.

The following table discusses the various arithmetic operators and their functions.

Operator |
Function |
Example |
---|---|---|

+ |
Addition | `$a + $b` |

- |
Subtraction | `$a - $b` |

* |
Multiplication | `$a * $b` |

/ |
Division | `$a / $b` |

% |
Modulus | `$a % $b` |

** |
Exponent | `$a ** $b` |

The modulus operator (

`%`

) returns the remainder when`$a`

is divided by`$b`

. For example, “5 % 2” will be “1”.

Run the code below to see how these arithmetic operators work in Perl.

$a = 10;$b = 4;print "\$a + \$b = ". ($a + $b); #additionprint "\n";print "\$a - \$b = ".($a - $b); #subtractionprint "\n";print "\$a * \$b) = ". ($a * $b); #multiplicationprint "\n";print "\$a / \$b = ". ($a / $b); #divisionprint "\n";print "\$a % \$b = ".($a % $b); #modulus returns the remainder of the $a / $bprint "\n";print "\$a ** \$b = ".($a ** $b); #Exponent (10^4) = 10 * 10 * 10 * 10

In the print statements above, `.`

is used to append the result of expressions with statements in double quotes.

## Unary operators

Unary operators are the type of arithmetic operators that perform arithmetic on only one value.

Two commonly used unary operators are discussed below:

- Incrementing operator:
`++`

- Decrementing operator:
`--`

Variables can be incremented by “1” using the `++`

operator and can be decremented by “1” using the operator `--`

. They can either precede or succeed
variables, resulting in different executions of the code. An example of this is shown below:

$i = 1;print $i."\n"; # Prints 1# Pre-increment operator increments $i by one before using its new valueprint ++$i."\n"; # Prints 2# Pre-decrement operator decrements $i by one before using its new valueprint --$i."\n"; # Prints 1# Post-increment operator uses the current value of the# variable and then incrementsprint $i++."\n"; # Prints 1 (but $i value is now 2)# Post-decrement operator uses the current value of# the variable and then decrementsprint $i--."\n"; # Prints 2 (but $i value is now 1)