Non-exception Error Handling Techniques

Learn about non-exception-based error handling techniques like callbacks, PHP error messages, default values, and sum types.

The following techniques are among the error handling techniques that are not based on exceptions:

  • Callbacks
  • PHP error messages
  • Default values
  • Sum types


A callback is a function that serves as an argument of a higher-order function. Callbacks mitigate failure when they’re used in place of exceptions. Consider the following snippet:

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