From the Chain Rule to Backpropagation

Learn how to apply chain rule in backpropagation.

Backpropagation is an application of the chain rule, it is one of the fundamental rules of calculus. The chain rule calculates the gradient of any node y with respect to any other node xx, we multiply the local gradient of all the nodes on the way back from yy to xx.

Let’s understand how the chain rule works on a couple of network-like structures: a simple one, and a more complicated one.

The chain rule on a simple network

Let’s look at this simple network-like structure:

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