This chapter deals with the different features that are present in all types of containers in C++.
Although the sequential and associative containers of the Standard Template library are two quite different classes of containers, they have a lot in common. For example, the operations, to create or delete a container, to determine its size, to access its elements, to assign or swap are all independent of the type of elements of a container. It is common for the containers that you can define them with an arbitrary size, and each container has an allocator. That’s the reason the size of a container can be adjusted at runtime. The allocator works most of the time in the background. This can be seen for a
std::vector. The call
std::vector<int> results in a call
std::vector<int, std::allocator<int>>. Because of the
std::allocator, you can adjust except for
std::array the size of all containers dynamically. However, they have yet more in common. You can access the elements of a container quite easily with an iterator.
The same holds true for the associative containers, which can be classified in the order and unordered ones.