Other Variants of LSTMs

Learn about two variants of the LSTMs: LSTMs with peepholes and gated recurrent units (GRUs).

Though we’ll mainly focus on the standard LSTM architecture, many variants have emerged that either simplify the complex architecture found in standard LSTMs, produce better performance, or both. We’ll look at two variants that introduce structural modifications to the cell architecture of LSTMs: peephole connections and GRUs.

Peephole connections

Peephole connections allow gates to see not only the current input and the previous final hidden state but also the previous cell state. This increases the number of weights in the LSTM cell. Having such connections has been shown to produce better results. The equations would look like these:

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