Other Paradigms

Learn about the nonconventional programming paradigms.

Other paradigms

The paradigms we have covered so far in this chapter are the most commonly used ones, but there are several others. Let’s take a quick look at some of them.

Function-level programming

In function-level programming, we have no variables at all. Instead, programs are built from elementary functions, combined with function-to-function operations, sometimes referred to as functionals or functional forms.

Languages that implement this paradigm are built around the following hierarchy:

  • Atoms are the data that the functions operate on. They’ll only appear as input or output to the programs and will never be found inside the actual program.
  • Functions will convert atoms into other atoms. The programming language will define a set of functions, and the programmer can create new ones using functional forms. The program itself is also a function.
  • Functional forms are used to convert functions into other functions. They can be used by the programmer to create new forms.

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