Learn what it means to refactor code and why it is important to do so.

Refactoring means changing the structure of the code by rearranging its internal representation without modifying its external behavior.

One example would be if we identify a class that has lots of responsibilities and very long methods, and then decide to change it by using smaller methods, creating new internal collaborators, and distributing responsibilities into new, smaller objects. As we do that, we're careful not to change the original interface of that class, keep all its public methods as before, and not change any signature. To an external observer of that class, it might look like nothing happened (but we know otherwise).

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