This chapter will cover all input and output features in C++17.

The input and output streams enable us to communicate with the outside world. A stream is an infinite character stream on which we can push or pull data. Push is called writing, pull is called reading.

The input and output streams:

  • were used long before the first C++ standard (C++98) in 1998.

  • are for the extensibility designed framework.

  • are implemented according to the object-oriented and generic paradigms.

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