Solution: K Closest Points to Origin

Let's solve the K Closest Points to Origin problem using the Top K Elements pattern.


Given an array of points on a plane, where the plane is a 2-D array with (x, y) coordinates, find the kk closest points to the origin (0,0)(0, 0).

Note: Here, the distance between two points on a plane is the Euclidean distance: x2+y2 \sqrt{x^2 + y^2}


  • 11 \leq k \leq points.length 103\leq 10^3
  • 104<-10^4 < x[i], y[i]<104< 10^4


So far, you’ve probably brainstormed some approaches and have an idea of how to solve this problem. Let’s explore some of these approaches and figure out which one to follow based on considerations, such as time complexity and any implementation constraints.

Naive approach

When thinking about how to solve this problem, it may help to solve a simpler problem—find the point closest to the origin. This would involve a linear scan through the unsorted array of points, with, at each step, a comparison between the closest point discovered so far and the current point from the array. The point closer to the origin would then continue as the candidate solution. This has a runtime complexity of O(n)O(n) as opposed to the naive solution of sorting the points by distance from the origin and picking the first one, which has a complexity of O(nlogn)O(n \log n).

For this reason, when extending the solution to the kk closest points to the origin, we’d ideally like to do one scan through the array of points. However, if we have to check the current set of kk closest points with the current point under consideration at each step, we’ll end up with a time complexity of O(n.k)O(n . k).

Optimized approach using top K elements:

Through a little organization of our set of kk closest points, there is a way to reduce the number of comparisons at each step—by storing these points in a max-heap that is sorted on the distance from the origin, we get points in a max-heap that is sorted on the distance from the origin, we get O(1)O(1) access to the point, among these kk points, that is farthest from the origin.

Now, instead of comparing all kk points with the next point from the array, we simply compare the point in the max-heap that is farthest from the origin with the next point from the array. If the next point is closer to the origin, it wins inclusion in the max-heap and ejects the point it was compared with. If not, nothing changes.

In this way, at every step of the scan through the array, the max-heap acts like a sieve, picking out the top kk points in terms of their distance from the origin.

And as we’ll see, the time complexity is much better than O(n.k)O(n . k).

The Euclidean distance between a point P(x, y) and the origin can be calculated using the following formula:

x2+y2\sqrt{x^2 + y^2}

​​ Now that we can calculate the distance between (0,0)(0, 0) and all the points, how will we find the kk nearest points? As discussed above, the heap data structure is ideal for this purpose—we’ll use a custom comparison function to define the order of the elements in a heap. Since we plan to populate the heap with coordinate pairs, we’ll define a struct, Point, and implement a custom less-than function in it ((h MaxHeap) Less(i, j int) in GoLang) for use by the heapify process. In this function, we compare the distances of the two points relative to the origin. The point closer to the origin will be considered less than the other point. We’ll iterate through the given array of points, and if we find one that is closer to the origin than the point at the root of the max-heap, we do the following two things:

  • Pop from the max-heap—that is, remove the point in the heap farthest from the origin.
  • Push the point that is closer to the origin onto the max-heap.

As we move through the given array of points, this will ensure that we always have the kk points in our heap that are the closest to the origin. The illustration of this process is given below.

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